Common Linux commands

Useful Linux Terminal Commands

1) How to find out where you are, the pwd command shows you present working directory.

$ pwd

2) Change directory

$ cd

The cd command is used to navigate into a specified directory on your server. Example:

$ cd /home (moves you into the home folder)

3) The same directory

$ cd ./

Using this command will take you to the user /home/user/ directory.

4) Move me back one directory

$ cd ..

Above command will navigate one step back from current directory

5) Go to Home folder

$ cd ~/

Above command will navigate to the home directory on your server.

7) Go to root

$ cd /

Above command will navigate to root.

8)How to List Directories and Contents
List files

$ ls

usage: ls [option] [file]
Using the ls command in a folder will display all it’s content.

$ ls /home

Will return all content of the folder /home.

9) Show me all files in a directory

$ ls -a

10) Show contents with file size

$ ls -h

If you wish to see a directory’s contents with file sizes just type ls -h

11) How to see sub-directories recursively

$ ls -r

The ls -r command is used to see sub-directories recursively.

12) How to see files by file size

$ ls -is

13) List all folders in directory with details

$ ls -alh

How to Copy files/folders with Putty Commands

14) Copying a file

$ cp

To copy a file just use the cp command.


$ cp filename.php /home/filename.php

15) Copy a folder with all files

$ cp -r

This one is used to copy the entire folder with all it’s contents.

16) Copy and rename

$ cp filename.php /home/filename2.php

How to Move files to different locations
17) Moving a file

$ mv page.php /home/page.php

18) Move and rename

$ mv page.php /home/newpage.php

19) Move file up one directory

mv filename ..
$ mv index.html/ ..

How to Create files/folders using Linux Commands

20) Create a folder

$ mkdir new-folder

21) Create a file

$ touch

Use the touch command to create different files and file extensions


$ touch index.php

How to Compress/Uncompress files?
22) Compressing folders

$ zip -r foldername
$ zip -r newfolder

23) uncompressing folders

$ unzip

24) Compressing folders using tar -czvf

tar -czvf foldername.tar.gz foldername
$ tar -czvf wp-content.tar.gz wp-content

25) uncompressing folders using tar -czvf

tar -xvf foldername.tar.gz
$tar -xvf wp-content.tar.gz

How to Delete/Remove files?
26) Delete a file


To delete a file on your server just use the rm command.

$ rm index.php

27) Delete all files from a directory

rm -r *

This command is used to delete all contents from a directory.

$ rm -r * foldername

28) Delete a folder/directory

$ rmdir 

Use this command to remove directories.

How to change File permissions?
29) Change file permissions

$ chmod 775 newfolder

30) Change permissions of folder and all files inside

$ chmod -r 755 folder-name

Get the list of PHP packaged install in UBUNTU

$ dpkg --get-selections | grep -i php

Thanks for reading our article and we will keep updating the same articles with more useful commands in coming days. Keep checking this space for more Linux commands.

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